Importance: Previous studies have shown that uniform pathologic review of all splenectomy surgical specimens reveals new clinically actionable diagnoses only in a minority of cases. Objective: To examine whether the aggregate of clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathologic preoperative data is associated with a clinically beneficial pathologic study for routine splenectomy surgical specimens. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center retrospective cohort study included all patients who underwent splenectomy from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2018, at a single center. Clinical, imaging, and pathologic data were extracted from the institution's electronic medical records system. Data analysis was conducted from June to November 2020. Exposures: Undergoing splenectomy for trauma or diagnostic or therapeutic indications. Main Outcomes and Measures: Spleen pathology study resulting in a new medical diagnosis or change in medical management. Results: Overall, 90 patients (53 [59%] men) with a median (range) age of 59 (19-90) years underwent splenectomy for therapeutic purposes in 41 patients (45%), trauma in 24 patients (27%), diagnostic purposes in 15 patients (17%), and combined therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in 9 patients (10%). In 14 patients (15%) a new malignant neoplasm was found, and in 8 patients (9%), a new nonneoplastic medical condition was diagnosed. A new pathologic diagnosis resulted in change in medical management in 16 patients (18%). In patients without a prior diagnosis of cancer, 41 of 56 pathology biopsies (73%) were found to be normal whereas in 7 biopsies (13%), a new diagnosis of a hematologic malignant neoplasm was revealed (P <.001). Patients with clinical splenomegaly were significantly more likely to have a new pathologic diagnosis of cancer compared with patients without splenomegaly (15 of 26 [58%] vs 4 of 64 [7%]; P <.001). In 39 of 43 patients (91%) with normal presurgery imaging studies, normal spleen pathology was revealed, whereas in 14 of 17 patients (82%) with abnormal imaging studies, a new hematological malignant neoplasm was diagnosed following pathologic review of the spleen specimen (P <.001). Patients with gross abnormalities on macroscopic examination had a significantly increased likelihood of a hematological cancer diagnosis (17 of 40 [43%]) and a solid cancer diagnosis (4 [10%]) compared with patients with grossly normal specimens (4 of 49 [8%]; P <.001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, routine pathologic review of spleen specimens was clinically beneficial in patients with splenomegaly, abnormal imaging results, a prior diagnosis of cancer, and with grossly abnormal spleens..
|Journal||JAMA network open|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2021|