Association between seasonal factors and multiple sclerosis

Abdulla Watad*, Shir Azrielant, Alessandra Soriano, Danielle Bracco, Arsalan Abu Much, Howard Amital

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system. MS is causing progressive and relapsing neurological disability, due to demyelination and axonal damage. The etiopathogenesis of MS is poorly understood. A number of environmental factors have been previously suggested, including: month of birth, vitamin D levels, smoking and viral infections. Previous studies assessing seasonal variation of relapses in multiple sclerosis have had conflicting results. The aim of this review is to assess the association between seasonal factors and MS, in terms of disease onset, relapses and activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1081-1089
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2016


  • Autoimmunity
  • Environment
  • Melatonin
  • Month of birth
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Seasonality
  • Vitamin D


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