Association Between Fecal Calprotectin Levels and Small-bowel Inflammation Score in Capsule Endoscopy: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Taina Sipponen, Artur Nemeth, Richard Makins, Uri Kopylov, Moshe Nadler, Andry Giannakou, Diana E. Yung*, Gabriele Wurm Johansson, Leonidas Bartzis, Henrik Thorlacius, Ernest G. Seidman, Rami Eliakim, John N. Plevris, Ervin Toth

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Accurate inflammation reporting in capsule endoscopy (CE) is important for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a highly specific biomarker of gut inflammation. Lewis score (LS) was developed to standardize quantification of inflammation in small-bowel (SB) CE images. Goals: Multicenter retrospective study aiming to investigate correlation between LS and FC in a large group of patients undergoing CE for suspected or known small-bowel IBD, and to develop a model for prediction of CE results (LS) based on FC levels. Study: Five academic centers and a district general hospital offering CE in UK, Finland, Sweden, Canada, and Israel. In total, 333 patients were recruited. They had small-bowel CE and FC done within 3 months. Results: Overall, correlation between FC and LS was weak (rs: 0.232, P < 0.001). When two clinically significant FC thresholds (100 and 250 μg/g) were examined, the rs between FC and LS was 0.247 (weak) and 0.337 (moderate), respectively (P = 0.307). For clinically significant (LS ≥ 135) or negative (LS < 135) for SB inflammation, ROC curves gave an optimum cutoff point of FC 76 μg/g with sensitivity 0.59 and specificity 0.41. Limitations: Retrospective design. Conclusions: LS appears to show low correlation with FC as well as other serology markers of inflammation. FC does not appear to be a reliable biomarker for significant small-bowel inflammation. Nevertheless, FC level ≥ 76 μg/g may be associated with appreciable visual inflammation on small-bowel CE in patients with negative prior diagnostic workup.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2033-2040
Number of pages8
JournalDigestive Diseases and Sciences
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2016


  • C-reactive protein
  • Capsule endoscopy
  • Fecal calprotectin
  • Lewis score
  • Monocyte count
  • Multicenter study
  • Small-bowel inflammation


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