Association between depression and anxiety with skin and musculoskeletal clinical phenotypes in systemic lupus erythematosus

David Eldeiry, Moe Zandy, Oshrat E. Tayer-Shifman, Andrew Kwan, Sherief Marzouk, Jiandong Su, Kathleen Bingham, Zahi Touma*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives. To study the clinical phenotypes, determined based on cumulative disease activity manifestations, and sociodemographic factors associated with depression and anxiety in SLE. Methods. Patients attending a single centre were assessed for depression and anxiety. SLE clinical phenotypes were based on the organ systems of cumulative 10-year SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), prior to visit. Multivariable logistic regression analyses for depression, anxiety, and coexisting anxiety and depression were performed to study associated SLE clinical phenotypes and other factors. Results. Among 341 patients, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 34% and 27%, respectively, while 21% had coexisting anxiety and depression. Patients with skin involvement had significantly higher likelihood of anxiety compared with patients with no skin involvement [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) ¼ 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.0]. Patients with skin involvement also had higher likelihood of having coexisting anxiety and depression (aOR ¼ 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.9). Patients with musculoskeletal (MSK) (aOR ¼ 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.5) and skin system (aOR ¼ 1.8; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.2) involvement had higher likelihood of depression compared with patients without skin or musculoskeletal involvement. Employment status and fibromyalgia at the time of the visit, and inception status were significantly associated with anxiety, depression, and coexisting anxiety and depression, respectively. Conclusion. SLE clinical phenotypes, specifically skin or MSK systems, along with fibromyalgia, employment and shorter disease duration were associated with anxiety or depression. Routine patient screening, especially among patients with shorter disease duration, for these associations may facilitate the diagnosis of these mental health disorders, and allow for more timely diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3211-3220
Number of pages10
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Lupus
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Skin
  • Sle
  • Systemic lupus


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