In this report, the authors explore the relationships of perceived treatment to outcome in a large, placebo-controlled trial of nicotine replacement treatment for smoking reduction. In the original study (J. F. Etter, E. Laszlo, J. P. Zellweger, C. Perrot, & T. V. Perneger, 2002), which was conducted in French-speaking Switzerland, smokers were randomly assigned to receive nicotine, matching placebo products, or no intervention. At the end of the 6-month study, participants were asked to guess whether they had received nicotine or placebo. In the present analysis, the authors examined the difference in smoking reduction between those who believed they had received nicotine and those who believed they had received placebo. Regardless of actual treatment, smokers who believed they had received nicotine had significantly better outcome than those who believed they had received placebo.