Assessment of effectiveness of 1 dose of BNT162B2 vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection 13 to 24 days after immunization

Gabriel Chodick, Lilac Tene, Tal Patalon, Sivan Gazit, Amir Ben Tov, Dani Cohen, Khitam Muhsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

IMPORTANCE The BNT162b2 vaccine showed high efficacy against COVID-19 in a phase III randomized clinical trial. A vaccine effectiveness evaluation in a real-world setting is needed. OBJECTIVE To assess the short-term effectiveness of the first dose of the BNT162b2-vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection 13 to 24 days after immunization in a real-world setting. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This comparative effectiveness study used data from a 2.6 million-member state-mandated health care system in Israel. Participants included all individuals aged 16 years and older who received 1 dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine between December 19, 2020, and January 15, 2021. Data were analyzed in March 2021. EXPOSURE Receipt of 1 dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Information was collected regarding medical history and positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test and COVID-19 symptoms from 1 day after first vaccine to January 17, 2021. Daily and cumulative infection rates in days 13 to 24 were compared with days 1 to 12 after the first dose using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear models. RESULTS Data for 503 875 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [14.7] years; 263 228 [52.4%] women) were analyzed, of whom 351 897 had follow-up data for days 13 to 24. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 2484 individuals (0.57%) during days 1 through 12 and 614 individuals (0.27%) in days 13 through 24. The weighted mean (SE) daily incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in days 1 through 12 was 43.41 (12.07) infections per 100 000 population and 21.08 (6.16) infections per 100 000 population in days 13 through 24, a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 51.4% (95% CI, 16.3%-71.8%). The decrease in incidence was evident from day 18 after the first dose. Similar RRRs were calculated in individuals aged 60 years or older (44.5%; 95% CI, 4.1%-67.9%), those younger than 60 years (50.2%; 95% CI, 14.1%-71.2%), women (50.0%; 95% CI, 13.5%-71.0%), and men (52.1%; 95% CI, 17.3%-72.2%). Findings were similar in subpopulations (eg, ultraorthodox Jewish: RRR, 53.5% [95% CI, 19.2%-73.2%]) and patients with various comorbidities (eg, cardiovascular diseases: RRR, 47.2% [95% CI, 7.8%-69.8%]). Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 was 54.4% (95% CI, 21.4%-73.6%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this comparative effectiveness study of a single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, results were comparable to that of the phase III randomized clinical trial.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2115985
JournalJAMA network open
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2021

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