Assessing the Cleanliness of Dental Implants Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis—A SEM and EDS In Vitro Study

Tarek Mtanis, Ameer Biadsee, Zeev Ormianer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A wide variety of titanium (Ti) alloy dental implant systems are available and as a result, choosing the correct system has become a challenge. Cleanliness of the dental implant surface affects osseointegration but surface cleanliness may be jeopardized during manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to assess the cleanliness of three implant systems. Fifteen implants per system were examined with scanning electron microscopy to identify and count foreign particles. Particle chemical composition analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Particles were categorized according to size and location. Particles on the outer and inner threads were quantitatively compared. A second scan was performed after exposing the implants to room air for 10 min. Carbon, among other elements, was found on the surface of all implant groups. Zimmer Biomet dental implants had higher particle numbers than other brands. Cortex and Keystone dental implants showed similar distribution patterns. The outer surface had higher particle numbers. Cortex dental implants were the cleanest. The change in particle numbers after exposure was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Most of the implants studied were contaminated. Particle distribution patterns vary with the manufacturer. The wider and outer areas of the implant have a higher probability of contamination.

Original languageEnglish
Article number172
JournalJournal of Functional Biomaterials
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Keywords

  • cleanliness
  • dental implants
  • osseointegration
  • surface contamination
  • titanium

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