As Moscas, os Hereges e o gênero da bruxaria

Tamar Herzig, Marcus Reis (Translator), Amanda Jacobsen de Oliveira (Translator)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Inquisitor Heinrich Kramer (alias Institoris, c. 1430–1505). Kramer, arguably the most infamous witchcraft theorist of the premodern era, was also one of the most prolific anti-heretical polemicists of his age. He devoted most of his long life to the repression of dissenting religious groups, as well as to the extirpation of witchcraft. The article argues that Kramer’s presentation of female witches and male heretics as distinct groups that partake in the devil’s conspiracy to
undermine Christendom marked an important turning point in demonological discourse. Kramer’s understanding of the analogous roles of witches and heretics was closely connected to his gendered understanding of the nature of both religious heterodoxy and diabolic witchcraft. This gendered
understanding, the article proposes, was generally accepted by both Catholics and Protestants in the next two centuries. Although women were sometimes charged with heresy and men were prosecuted for witchcraft, most of those executed for heresy in the Age of Reformations were male, whereas the
main victims of the early modern witch-hunts were female.
Original languagePortuguese
Pages (from-to)130-155
Number of pages26
JournalEscritas do Tempo
Issue number13
StatePublished - 2023


  • Gender
  • Witchcraft
  • Demonology
  • Remodeling
  • Unitas Fratrum
  • Hussitism

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