ARKENSTONE – I. A novel method for robustly capturing high specific energy outflows in cosmological simulations

Matthew C. Smith*, Drummond B. Fielding, Greg L. Bryan, Chang Goo Kim, Eve C. Ostriker, Rachel S. Somerville, Jonathan Stern, Kung Yi Su, Rainer Weinberger, Chia Yu Hu, John C. Forbes, Lars Hernquist, Blakesley Burkhart, Yuan Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


ARKENSTONE is a new model for multiphase, stellar feedback-driven galactic winds designed for inclusion in coarse resolution cosmological simulations. In this first paper of a series, we describe the features that allow ARKENSTONE to properly treat high specific energy wind components and demonstrate them using idealized non-cosmological simulations of a galaxy with a realistic circumgalactic medium (CGM), using the AREPO code. Hot, fast gas phases with low mass loadings are predicted to dominate the energy content of multiphase outflows. In order to treat the huge dynamic range of spatial scales involved in cosmological galaxy formation at feasible computational expense, cosmological volume simulations typically employ a Lagrangian code or else use adaptive mesh refinement with a quasi-Lagrangian refinement strategy. However, it is difficult to inject a high specific energy wind in a Lagrangian scheme without incurring artificial burstiness. Additionally, the low densities inherent to this type of flow result in poor spatial resolution. ARKENSTONE addresses these issues with a novel scheme for coupling energy into the transition region between the interstellar medium (ISM) and the CGM, while also providing refinement at the base of the wind. Without our improvements, we show that poor spatial resolution near the sonic point of a hot, fast outflow leads to an underestimation of gas acceleration as the wind propagates. We explore the different mechanisms by which low and high specific energy winds can regulate the star formation rate of galaxies. In future work, we will demonstrate other aspects of the ARKENSTONE model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1216-1243
Number of pages28
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024


FundersFunder number
National Science FoundationAST-2108470
David and Lucile Packard Foundation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration822237, 888968, 80NSSC21K1053
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation80NSSC22K0668, AST-2219686, AST-2107735
Simons FoundationCCA 668771
John Templeton Foundation
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
Harvard University
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of CanadaSTE1869/2-1 GE625/17-1
Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftEXC 2181/1-390900948
Israel Science Foundation2584/21


    • galaxies: evolution
    • hydrodynamics
    • methods: numerical


    Dive into the research topics of 'ARKENSTONE – I. A novel method for robustly capturing high specific energy outflows in cosmological simulations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this