Laser irradiation of the eye is a widely used therapeutic measure in various ocular disorders. We investigated in laser-treated rabbits' eyes the changes in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels of the tissue affected by the laser (the retina/choroid) and of its adjacent vitreous over a two-week period. The parameters studied were; PGE2 in vitro production by the retina/choroid, as well as PGE2 and protein levels in the vitreous, the latter indicative of a break in the blood retinal barrier (BRB). The effect of noncoherent light exposure used for illumination, and that of the mechanical manipulation involved (sham exposure) were also studied. Following laser exposure vitreal PGE2 levels were increased two-fold above baseline (days three and 14), whereas light exposure resulted in a sinle peak. PGE2 in vitro production by the retina/choroid in the laser-exposed group was elevated throughout the observation period, peaking twice (days 3 and 14), in the light-exposed group the enhanced production was evident during a shorter period, whereas in the sham group it remained unchanged from baseline. An elevation in vitreal protein levels to above baseline levels occurred in both the laser- and, to a lesser degree, in the noncoherent light-exposed groups, but not in the sham group. Our study demonstrated an enhanced PGE2 in vitro production by retina/choroid of laser-exposed eyes, which might be attributable to the additive effect of the laser induced trauma, and the noncoherent light photochemical changes; the clinical significance of the recurrent increased in vitreal PGE2 levels in laser-treated eyes might be related to its anti-inflammatory properties.