Are LRRK2 p.G2019S or GBA1 variants associated with long-term outcomes of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease?

Saar Anis*, Tomer Goldberg, Ethan Shvueli, Yuval Kozlov, Yonatan Redlich, Naama Lavi, Inbar Lavie, Yuri Ludwig Sosero, Ziv Gan-Or, Lior Ungar, Zion Zibly, Lior Greenbaum, Tsvia Fay-Karmon, Sharon Hassin-Baer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established treatment option for individuals with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The potential influence of the LRRK2 p.G2019S or GBA1 variants on its lasting efficacy and adverse effects should be better characterized. Methods: We conducted a retrospective single-center case-control study involving PD patients who were carriers of a GBA1 variant (GBA1-PD), the LRRK2 p.G2019S variant (LRRK2-PD), and non-carriers (Nc-PD). All participants underwent DBS and were followed up for at least a year. Assessments before surgery and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years post-DBS included the following: the Movement Disorder Society's Unified PD Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part III, Hoehn and Yahr scale, Levodopa Equivalent Daily Dose (LEDD) and non-motor symptoms (psychotic episodes, depressive symptoms, and cognitive decline). Results: The sample was composed of 103 patients (72 males, mean age at DBS surgery 61.5 ± 8.7 years, mean postoperative follow-up 7.0 ± 4.1 years). Of these, 19 were LRRK2-PD, 20 GBA1-PD, and 64 were Nc-PD. No significant differences in motor outcomes were observed between the groups. Compared to the Nc-PD patients, the GBA1-PD patients were at increased risk of both psychotic episodes [hazard ratio (HR) 2.76 (95 % CI: 1.12–6.80), p = 0.027], and cognitive decline [HR 2.28 (95 % CI: 1.04–5.00), p = 0.04]. Conclusion: LRRK2 and GBA1 variant status did not affect the motor outcomes of DBS in PD patients. However, GBA1-PD patients were at increased risk for psychosis and cognitive decline. Further studies are required to determine the role of genetic stratification in referral to DBS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106008
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Cognitive decline
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • GBA1
  • LRRK2
  • Motor symptoms
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Psychotic episodes


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