Appropriateness of viscoelastic soft materials as in vitro simulators of the periodontal ligament

T. Brosh*, N. Porat, A. D. Vardimon, R. Pilo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The periodontal ligament is a viscoelastic soft tissue that connects the tooth to the alveolar bone. This tissue should be simulated in numerical as well as in laboratory models. The mechanical properties of this tissue were previously determined ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of the study was to analyse the appropriateness of impression and reline materials used in dentistry to simulate viscoelastic behaviour of the periodontal ligament. Two reline [Durabase (Reliance Dental MFG, Co.) and Soft Liner (GC Corporation)] and two impression [President Plus (Coltene) and Prestige L (Vanini Dental Industry)] materials were examined in recovery and tensile relaxation tests. Recovery: This experiment simulated in vivo test. Roots of a pair of plastic maxillary premolar teeth were covered with each test material and embedded in acryl while maintaining the contact point. A 0·1-mm stainless steel strip, inserted at the contact point and maintained for 10s, was used to tip the teeth. After removal, the tightness of dental contact point was measured over 30min by determining the force needed to insert a 0·05-mm metal strip. Tensile relaxation: strips were elongated to 120%, 140% and 160% of their initial length and maintained at that length for 30min. Two-phase decay function was applied. The results showed that elastic modulus and relaxation behaviour were significantly different between materials. Elastic modulus values were in the same range of those reported in the literature. However, the recovery values and behaviour showed that impression materials, especially President, are the materials of choice for this purpose because they simulated better the in vivo test.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)929-939
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Oral Rehabilitation
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2011


  • Laboratory simulation
  • Periodontal ligament
  • Recovery test
  • Relaxation test
  • Tightness of dental contact point
  • Viscoelastic properties


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