Approach to Patients with Protracted Rheumatological Manifestations

Eli Schwartz*, Michael Ehrenfeld

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Protracted rheumatological manifestations, especially arthralgia and polyarthritis, may be caused by a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Suggested pathogenetic mechanisms leading to these clinical presentations include direct invasion of the synovial cells by the pathogens and immune complex formation. The prognosis is altogether good with full recovery, albeit sometime very long, but without sequelae. Diagnosis of infections related to arthralgia/arthritis is important because these diseases have a better prognosis, and can relieve anxiety among patients who are afraid of developing a chronic rheumatic disease. Because many patients will seek medical advice with these chronic complaints long after travel, physicians should be aware of the possible association between these complaints and remote travel. Travel history should be mandatory, even in a rheumatological setting.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTropical Diseases in Travelers
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9781405184410
StatePublished - 15 Jan 2010


  • Alphaviruses
  • Arthralgia
  • Arthritis
  • Bacterial infection
  • Erythema nodosum
  • Fungal
  • Helminth
  • Reactive arthritis
  • Toxin


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