Applying the Haddon Matrix to Frontline Care Preparedness and Response in Asymmetric Warfare

Flavio Salio*, Alessandro Pirisi, Gregory R. Ciottone, Lina Maria Echeverri, Kobi Peleg, Anthony D. Redmond, Eric S. Weinstein, Ives Hubloue, Francesco Della Corte, Luca Ragazzoni

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Asymmetric warfare and the reaction to its threats have implications in the way far-forward medical assistance is provided in such settings. Investments in far-forward emergency resuscitation and stabilization can contribute to saving lives and increase the resilience of health systems. Thus, it is proposed to extend the use of the Haddon Matrix to determine a set of strategies to better understand and prioritize activities to prepare for and set-up frontline care in the form of Trauma Stabilization Points (TSPs). Methods: An expert consensus methodology was used to achieve the research aim. A small subject matter experts' group was convened to create and validate the content of the Haddon Matrix. Results: The result of the expert group consultations presented an overview of TSP Preparedness and Operational Readiness activities within a Haddon Matrix framework. Main strategies to be adopted within the cycle from pre-to post-event had been identified and presented considering the identified opportunities in the context of the possibility of implementation. Of particular importance was the revision of a curriculum that fits the civilian medical system and facilitates its adaptation to the context and available resources. Conclusion: The new framework to enhance frontline care preparedness and response using the Haddon Matrix facilitated the identification of a set of strategies to support frontline health care workers in a more efficient manner. Since the existing approach and tools are insufficient for modern warfare, additional research is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)577-583
Number of pages7
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - 25 Oct 2022


  • Haddon Matrix
  • Trauma Stabilization Points
  • asymmetric warfare
  • emergency and trauma care


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