Purpose of Review: Aortic regurgitation (AR) is a common form of valvular disease which is characterized by reflux of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle (LV) during diastole. AR results from various etiologies, affecting the aortic valve cusps or the aortic root. The clinical presentation of patients with AR depends on the severity of the regurgitation and differs whether AR develops acutely or if it progresses over a prolonged period, allowing the cardiac chambers to adapt. Echocardiography is the primary method to determine the etiology of AR and to define its severity. We review the current data regarding the diagnosis and treatment of AR. Recent Findings: No single parameter is sufficient to determine AR severity; thus, an integrative, multi-parametric approach is required. Echocardiography is key for imaging the aortic valve morphology and flow as well as aortic root and ascending aorta. Determining LV ejection fraction and dimensions is essential for patient management and optimizing timing for intervention. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is useful in the evaluation of AR etiology and severity. The use of Trasncatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an alternative to surgery in patients at high operative risk. Summary: The diagnosis and management of AR requires a comprehensive approach and routine clinical and echocardiographic follow-up. Surgical or percutaneous therapy is indicated when symptoms develop and in those who have LV dysfunction or LV dilation.
- Aortic regurgitation
- Surgical therapy