Antisemitism in the Muslim Middle East is more prevalent today than in any other region in the world. Similarly, the demonization of the Jews in modern Arabic writings, particularly among Islamist movements, is more virulent than in any other part of the world, culminating in open calls for their elimination. Pre-modern Islamic tradition contained anti-Jewish elements rooted in the Quran. Jews never enjoyed equality with Muslims, as they were always subject to discriminatory laws, and there was always latent pressure to convert to Islam. Manifestations of ideological hostility to Jews appeared in the nineteenth century, before the emergence of Zionism, as a result of the growing European political and cultural penetration of the Middle East. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I followed by the European takeover of most Middle Eastern countries and the 1924 abolition of the Muslim Caliphate by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk exacerbated the sense of crisis among Arab societies.