Antiphospholipid antibodies are the hallmark of the antiphospholipid syndrome which is characterized by thrombosis. There are currently data supporting an association between these autoantibodies and atherosclerosis as well. Human studies suggest that anti-cardiolipin and anti-β-glycoprotein-I antibodies are elevated in patients having coronary artery disease compared with controls. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies are also associated with typical chest pain, significant coronary artery stenosis on angiography and prediction of myocardial infarction. Laboratory studies and murine models support the pro-atherogenic role of these autoantibodies, as they are involved in uptake of oxidized LDL into macrophages, and immunization of mice with them results in enhanced atherosclerosis. There is some evidence that high anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies can present a risk factor for atherosclerosis, but more epidemiological data are required in order to confirm whether the pro-atherogenic properties of anti-phospholipid antibodies signifies an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and its complications.