Antimicrobial resistance and patient outcomes: The hazards of adjustment

Mitchell J. Schwaber*, Yehuda Carmeli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate


Outcomes studies of infections with resistant bacteria often do not account appropriately for intermediate variables - events in the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome - when controlling for confounders. We discuss how failure to distinguish between confounders and intermediate variables can bias the analysis, and we address methods of approaching this issue.

Original languageEnglish
Article number164
JournalCritical Care
Issue number5
StatePublished - 5 Sep 2006
Externally publishedYes


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