Mice of the RIII and C57BL strains were treated with rabbit antiserum to thymus (ATS), and cells of their lymph nodes were analyzed serologically at intervals after treatment. While lymph-node cells of untreated mice were sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of isoantibodies against the theta antigen, lymph-node cells of ATS-treated mice showed a significantly reduced sensitivity. Three days after ATS treatment lymph-node cells of most mice were completely refractory to the cytotoxic effect of theta antibodies. Administration of normal rabbit serum elicited only a slight reduction of the sensitivity of lymph-node cells to the cytotoxic effect of theta antibodies. The results support the hypothesis that ATS treatment selectively affects a population of thymus-dependent circulating lymphocytes.