Antibodies are considered the hallmark of the adaptive immune system in that they mediate various key biological functions, such as direct neutralization and recruitment of effector immune cells to eliminate invading pathogens. Antibodies exhibit several unique properties, including high diversity (enabling binding to a wide range of targets), high specificity and structural integrity. These properties and the understanding that antibodies can be utilized in a wide range of applications have motivated the scientific community to develop new approaches for antibody repertoire analysis and rapid monoclonal antibody discovery. Today, antibodies are key modules in the pharmaceutical and diagnostic industries. By virtue of their high affinity and specificity to their targets and the availability of technologies to engineer different antibodies to a wide range of targets, antibodies have become the most promising natural biological molecules in a range of biotechnological applications, such as: highly specific and sensitive nanobiosensors for the diagnostics of different biomarkers; nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery systems to certain cells or tissues; and nanomachines, which are nanoscale mechanical devices that enable energy conversion into precise mechanical motions in response to specific molecular inputs. In this review, we start by describing the unique properties of antibodies, how antibody diversity is generated, and the available technologies for antibody repertoire analysis and antibody discovery. Thereafter, we provide an overview of some antibody-based nanotechnologies and discuss novel and promising approaches for the application of antibodies in the nanotechnology field. Overall, we aim to bridge the knowledge gap between the nanotechnology and antibody engineering disciplines by demonstrating how technological advances in the antibody field can be leveraged to develop and/or enhance new technological approaches in the nanotechnology field.
- Antibody based nanotechnology
- antibody repertoire
- next generation sequencing