Antibiotic resistance: Turning evolutionary principles into clinical reality

Dan I. Andersson, Nathalie Q. Balaban, Fernando Baquero, Patrice Courvalin, Philippe Glaser, Uri Gophna*, Roy Kishony, Søren Molin, Tone Tønjum

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

141 Scopus citations


Antibiotic resistance is one of the major challenges facing modern medicine worldwide. The past few decades have witnessed rapid progress in our understanding of the multiple factors that affect the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance at the population level and the level of the individual patient. However, the process of translating this progress into health policy and clinical practice has been slow. Here, we attempt to consolidate current knowledge about the evolution and ecology of antibiotic resistance into a roadmap for future research as well as clinical and environmental control of antibiotic resistance. At the population level, we examine emergence, transmission and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, and at the patient level, we examine adaptation involving bacterial physiology and host resilience. Finally, we describe new approaches and technologies for improving diagnosis and treatment and minimizing the spread of resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberFUAA001
JournalFEMS Microbiology Reviews
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021


FundersFunder number
European Academy of Microbiology
Federation of European Microbiological Societies


    • Antibiotic resistance
    • Evolution
    • New therapy
    • Prevention
    • Rapid diagnostics
    • Transmission


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