Antibiotic exposure and the risk of hospital-acquired diarrhoea and Clostridioides difficile infection: A cohort study

Vered Schechner*, Noga Fallach, Tali Braun, Elizabeth Temkin, Yehuda Carmeli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Hospital-acquired diarrhoea (HAD) and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) may be triggered by antibiotic use. Objectives: To determine the effect of specific antibiotic agents and duration of therapy on the risk of HAD and CDI. Patients and methods: A single-centre retrospective cohort study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2014 in the internal medicine division. HAD was defined based on documentation of diarrhoea in the medical record or an uncancelled C. difficile test in the laboratory database. CDI was diagnosed using a two-step test (initial glutamate dehydrogenase and toxin A/B EIA, with PCR for discrepant results). Outcomes first occurred on hospital Day 4 or later. Treatment with antibiotics and days of therapy were modelled. Results: In 29 063 hospitalizations there were 970 HAD events [incidence rate per 10 000 patient days (IR) = 38.5] and 105 CDI events (IR = 3.9). Any antibiotic treatment increased the risk of HAD [adjusted relative risk (aRR) 2.79; 95% CI 2.27-3.43] and CDI (aRR 5.31; 95% CI 2.23-12.69). Each day of b-lactam/ b-lactamase inhibitors (bL/bLIs), carbapenems, IV glycopeptides and metronidazole increased the risk of HAD. Each day of bL/bLIs, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems increased the risk of CDI by over 2%. Conclusions: Preventing HAD and CDI should focus on reducing the overall use of antibiotics and shortening antibiotic exposure, rather than focusing on specific agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2182-2185
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Volume76
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2021

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