Cancer immunotherapy with tumor-directed antibodies has generally been very successful, while T-cell immunotherapy has been less effective. Some lymphoid malignancies can be cured with immunochemotherapy but nevertheless many patients relapse or progress in spite of maximal therapy. Both solid tumors and lymphoid malignancies develop mechanisms in order to escape destruction by the intact immune system. One such mechanism is mediated through immune checkpoints. PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1, which is expressed on activated T and B cells, natural killer cells and myeloid cells, is one of those checkpoints. This review focuses on the effect of PD-1 activation on lymphoid malignancies and its role as a therapeutic target.
- Chronic lymphoid leukemia
- Multiple myeloma