Anophthabmia-plus syndrome: A clinical report and review of the literature

Imad R. Makhoul*, Michalle Soudack, Orna Kochavi, Joseph N. Guilburd, Shimon Maimon, Ruth Gershoni-Baruch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


We describe a term male infant of healthy non-consanguineous parents, born with congenital malformations, including bilateral cleft palate and lip, mild microphthalmia with iris coloboma and glaucoma of the right eye, and blepharophimosis with severe microphthalmia of the left eye. Spine radiograph and MRI showed first sacral hemivertebra with spina bifida, and agenesis of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th sacral vertebrae and coccyx. Spine MRI showed caudal tethering of spinal cord at L3 level, filum terminalis lipoma and a syringomyelia. Brain ultrasound and MRI showed hypoplasia of corpus callosum with mild dilatation of the lateral ventricles. Orbital MRI showed bilateral microphthalmia-distorted small left eyeball with posteriorly located lens, and a split vitreous body in the right eye, suggestive of primary hyperplastic vitreous. The karyotype was normal. Summary of the findings in nine cases (our case and eight published cases) support the notion that anophthalmia-plus syndrome (APS) is a distinct syndrome. Gene locus of APS is yet to be identified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)64-68
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Anophthalmia
  • Anophthalmia-plus syndrome
  • Cleft lip
  • Cleft palate
  • Sacral agenesis
  • Tethered cord


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