Anemia in Patients With Diabetes and Prediabetes With Normal Kidney Function: Prevalence and Clinical Outcomes

Daniel Erez, Coral Shefler, Eytan Roitman, Sigal Levy, Zamir Dovrish, Martin Ellis, Orit Twito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Anemia is a known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM); however, its prevalence and prognostic relevance in patients with DM and pre-DM with normal kidney function have not been well defined. This study assessed the prevalence of anemia in patients with DM and pre-DM and evaluated its association with clinical outcomes during a 4-year follow-up period. Methods: This retrospective analysis included patients with DM and pre-DM referred to the Meir Medical Center Endocrine Institute in 2015. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min or any other recognized cause of anemia were excluded. The risk of developing microvascular or macrovascular complications or of death during the 4-year follow-up period was determined. Results: A total of 622 patients (408 with DM and 214 with pre-DM) were included. The mean age of the patients was 64 ± 10.6 years, and 70% were women. The baseline hemoglobin A1C level was 7.1% ± 1.7% (54 mmol/mol), and the eGFR was 86.1 ± 15.3 mL/min. At the time of inclusion, 77 patients (19%) with DM and 23 (11%) with pre-DM had anemia (hemoglobin level 11.9 ± 0.8 and 11.8 ± 0.8 g/dL, respectively), compared with normal hemoglobin levels of 13.8 ± 0.9 and 13.7± 0.9 g/dL, respectively, in the others. A multivariable analysis demonstrated an inverse correlation between baseline hemoglobin (as a continuous variable) and mortality (P =.035), microvascular complications (P =.003), and eGFR decline (P <.001) but not between baseline hemoglobin and macrovascular complications (P =.567). Conclusion: This study found a significant prevalence of anemia unrelated to renal failure, both in patients with DM and pre-DM. Anemia in these patients is associated with the development of microvascular complications, eGFR decline, and mortality. These results underscore the need for intensive lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-134
Number of pages6
JournalEndocrine Practice
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Keywords

  • anemia
  • diabetes
  • normal kidney function
  • outcomes
  • prediabetes

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