Anemia in men and increased Parkinson's disease risk: A population-based large scale cohort study

Violetta Rozani, Nir Giladi*, T. Gurevich, Baruch El-Ad, Judith Tsamir, Beatriz Hemo, C. Peretz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To evaluate the association between anemia and Parkinson's disease risk (PD) in men and women. Methods: A population-based cohort of 474,129 individuals (aged 40–79 years at date of first Hb test, 47.4% men) with repeated Hb levels was derived from a large Healthcare Maintenance Organization that serves 2 million citizens in Israel (study-period 1.1.1999–31.12.2012). An annual anemia indicator [Hb levels (g/dL) for men <13; for women <12.0] was assessed for each individual and they were followed from first Hb test until the date of PD incidence, death or end of the study. Cox-proportional hazards models, stratified by sex and age, with time-dependent anemia covariate were used to estimate adjusted Hazard Ratio with 95% of confidence intervals (HR, 95%CI) for PD. Results: During a mean follow up of 8.8 ± 3.9 years (7.0 ± 3.6 for men and 7.9 ± 4.1 for women), 2427 incident PD cases were detected. Cumulative PD incidence at ages over 65 years was 3.3%. The mean levels of Hb at baseline was 14.8 ± 1.1 g/dL among men; 12.8 ± 1.1 g/dL among women. Anemia was associated with significant PD risk among men, age-pooled HR = 1.19 (95%CI: 1.04–1.37), with the highest risk between ages 60–64 years [HR = 1.41 (95%CI: 1.03–1.93)]. Anemia was not associated with PD risk among women across all age-groups. The age-pooled HR for women was 1.02 (95%CI 0.95–1.09). Conclusions: The finding that anemia was associated with PD risk in men, especially in middle age, warrants further investigations on common pathophysiologic processes between Hb abnormalities and brain dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-96
Number of pages7
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
StatePublished - Jul 2019


FundersFunder number
European Union 7th Framework Program
Lysosomal Therapeutics Inc.
National Parkinson 's disease Foundation
Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research
National Parkinson Foundation
CHDI Foundation
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
Seventh Framework Programme
Israel Science Foundation


    • Anemia over time
    • Cohort study
    • Parkinson's disease


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