Anatomical Features of the Parotid Duct in Sialography as an Aid to Endoscopy—A Retrospective Study

Gal Avishai*, Muhammad Younes, Hanna Gilat, Leon Gillman, Vadim Reiser, Eli Rosenfeld, Gavriel Chaushu, Daya Masri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sialography is used for diagnosis of obstructive salivary gland diseases and prior to sialendoscopy. Three-dimensional cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) sialography allows imaging and measurement of salivary duct structures. Salivary gland endoscopy has a long learning curve. The aim of this retrospective study is to create an anatomical quantitative guide of different distances and angles significant for endoscopy. Twenty-six CBCT sialographies of healthy parotid ducts were included. Outcome parameters included diameters, distances, angles and number of minor tributaries. Results show the average distance from the papilla to the curvature of the gland was 41.5 mm (Q1 36.97 mm–Q3 45.32 mm), with an angle of 126.9° (Q1 107.58°–Q3 135.6°) of the curvature and a distance of 35.25 mm (±7.81 mm) between the curvature and the hilus. The mean width of the duct was 0.8 mm (Q1 0.7 mm–Q3 1.15 mm) at its narrowest and 2 mm (Q1 1.4 mm–Q3 2.2 mm) at its widest. This is the first anatomical quantitative study of the parotid duct in relation to sialendoscopy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1868
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • parotid duct anatomy
  • salivary gland endoscopy
  • sialography


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