Ethiopia has a population of 56 million and an area of 1,110,000 km2. Ethiopia is one of the poorest nations in the world, and its health services system reflects that poverty. Accidental injury, violence, infectious diseases, and natural and manmade disasters abound, yet emergency medicine is practically nonexistent. Poorly equipped and staff emergency 'rooms' supply substandard service even in the capital. Significant work and planning are under way by a group of high-quality and dedicated local physicians and nurses with international support from Israel and the United States. A coherent plan is due at the end of the year. Much financial and professional support from outside sources will be required for significant advances in the quality of emergency care to improve. Human as well are material resources are vital.