Synthetic antibodies hold great promise in combating diseases, diagnosis, and a wide range of biomedical applications. However, designing a therapeutically amenable, synthetic antibody that can arrest the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) remains challenging. Here, we report a flexible, hairpin-like synthetic paratope (SP1, ∼2 kDa), which prevents the aggregation of Aβ monomers and reverses the preformed amyloid fibril to a non-toxic species. Structural and biophysical studies further allowed dissecting the mode and affinity of molecular recognition events betweenSP1and Aβ. Subsequently,SP1reduces Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, neuronal apoptosis, and ROS-mediated oxidative damage in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). The non-toxic nature ofSP1and its ability to ameliorate hippocampal neurodegeneration in a rat model of AD demonstrate its therapeutic potential. This paratope engineering module could readily implement discoveries of cost-effective molecular probes to nurture the basic principles of protein misfolding, thus combating related diseases.