An electrochemical impedance model for integrated bacterial biofilms

Hadar Ben-Yoav*, Amihay Freeman, Marek Sternheim, Yosi Shacham-Diamand

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bacterial cells attachment onto solid surfaces and the following growth into mature microbial biofilms may result in highly antibiotic resistant biofilms. Such biofilms may be incidentally formed on tissues or implanted devices, or intentionally formed by directed deposition of microbial sensors on whole-cell bio-chip surface. A new method for electrical characterization of the later on-chip microbial biofilm buildup is presented in this paper. Measurement of impedance vs. frequency in the range of 100 mHz to 400 kHz of Escherichia coli cells attachment to indium-tin-oxide-coated electrodes was carried out while using optical microscopy estimating the electrode area coverage. We show that impedance spectroscopy measurements can be interpreted by a simple electrical equivalent model characterizing both attachment and growth of the biofilm. The correlation of extracted equivalent electrical lumped components with the visual biofilm parameters and their dependence on the attachment and growth phases is confirmed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7780-7786
Number of pages7
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Issue number23
StatePublished - 30 Sep 2011


  • Anomalous diffusion theory
  • Bio-chips
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • Microbial biofilms
  • Optical microscopy


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