Adverse outcomes in vacuum-assisted delivery after detachment of non-metal cup: a retrospective cohort study

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Purpose: To evaluate neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with detachment of non-metal vacuum cup during delivery and to identify risk factors for these detachments. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included women with singleton pregnancy, who underwent vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery with a non-metal vacuum cup in a single academic institution, January 2014–August 2019. Failed vacuum deliveries were excluded. Primary outcomes were defined as subgaleal hematoma (SGH) and cord blood pH < 7.15. Secondary outcome included other neonatal complications and adverse maternal outcomes. Outcomes were compared between vacuum-assisted deliveries with and without cup detachment during the procedure. Results: A total of 3246 women had successful VAD and met the inclusion criteria. During the procedure, the cup detached at least once in 665 (20.5%) deliveries and did not detach in 2581 (79.5%). The cup detachment group experienced higher rates of SGH (8.9% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.001) and cord blood pH < 7.15 (9.8% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.03). There were also more neonatal intensive care unit admissions (NICU) (4.4% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.03) and more fetuses with occiput posterior position (70.8% vs. 79.4%, p = 0.001), the vacuum duration was slightly longer (6 ± 3.7 vs. 5 ± 2.9 min) and more neonates had birth weights > 3700 g (14.1% vs, 10.3%, p = 0.006). Interestingly, there were more males in that group (60.6 vs. 54.6, p = 0.005). All these factors remained significant after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions: Vacuum cup detachment has several predictive characteristics and is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes that should be incorporated into decisions made during the procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-364
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • Cup detachment
  • Non-metal vacuum cup
  • Subgaleal hematoma
  • Vacuum-assisted delivery


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