Advances in Animal Models and Cutting-Edge Research in Alternatives: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on 3Rs Research and Progress, Vishakhapatnam, 2022

Nikita Narayan Naik, Bharadwaja Vadloori*, Suresh Poosala, Pratima Srivastava, Sandra Coecke, Adrian Smith, Aysha Akhtar, Clive Roper, Sridhar Radhakrishnan, Balaji Bhyravbhatla, Madhujit Damle, Venkat Koushik Pulla, Johannes Hackethal, Reyk Horland, Albert P. Li, Falguni Pati, Manu Smriti Singh, Paola Occhetta, Rohit Bisht, Prajakta DandekarKrishna Bhagavatula, Dasja Pajkrt, Michael Johnson, Tilo Weber, John Huang, Lisiena Hysenaj, Banerjee Mallar, Bhat Ramray, Santosh Dixit, Shreekanth Joshi, Mandar Kulkarni

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Animal experimentation has been integral to drug discovery and development and safety assessment for many years, since it provides insights into the mechanisms of drug efficacy and toxicity (e.g. pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics). However, due to species differences in physiology, metabolism and sensitivity to drugs, the animal models can often fail to replicate the effects of drugs and chemicals in human patients, workers and consumers. Researchers across the globe are increasingly applying the Three Rs principles by employing innovative methods in research and testing. The Three Rs concept focuses on: the replacement of animal models (e.g. with in vitro and in silico models or human studies), on the reduction of the number of animals required to achieve research objectives, and on the refinement of existing experimental practices (e.g. eliminating distress and enhancing animal wellbeing). For the last two years, Oncoseek Bio-Acasta Health, a 3-D cell culture-based cutting-edge translational biotechnology company, has organised an annual International Conference on 3Rs Research and Progress. This series of global conferences aims to bring together researchers with diverse expertise and interests, and provides a platform where they can share and discuss their research to promote practices according to the Three Rs principles. In November 2022, the 3rd international conference, Advances in Animal Models and Cutting-Edge Research in Alternatives, took place at the GITAM University in Vishakhapatnam (AP, India) in a hybrid format (i.e. online and in-person). These conference proceedings provide details of the presentations, which were categorised under five different topic sessions. It also describes a special interactive session on in silico strategies for preclinical research in oncology, which was held at the end of the first day.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-288
Number of pages26
JournalATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • 3Rs
  • NAMs
  • Three Rs
  • animal models
  • animal-free
  • drug discovery
  • microphysiological system
  • new approach methodologies
  • organ-on-a-chip
  • organoid
  • organs-on-chips
  • replacement
  • spheroid
  • tissue microenvironment


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