Maternal infections during pregnancy increase the risk for schizophrenia and related disorders of putative neurodevelopmental origin in the offspring. This association has been attributed to enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal environment in response to maternal immunological stimulation. In contrast, the specific roles of anti-inflammatory cytokines are virtually unknown in this context. Here, we demonstrate that genetically enforced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 by macrophages attenuates the long-term behavioral and pharmacological consequences of prenatal immune activation in a mouse model of prenatal viral-like infection by polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyI:C; 2 mg/kg, intravenously). In the absence of a discrete prenatal inflammatory stimulus, however, enhanced levels of IL-10 at the maternal-fetal interface by itself also precipitates specific behavioral abnormalities in the grown offspring. This highlights that in addition to the disruptive effects of excess pro-inflammatory molecules, a shift toward enhanced anti-inflammatory signaling in prenatal life can similarly affect cognitive and behavioral development. Hence, shifts of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine classes may be a critical determinant of the final impact on neurodevelopment following early life infection or innate immune imbalances.