Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is essential for embryonic development with ADNP mutations leading to syndromic autism, coupled with intellectual disabilities and motor developmental delays. Here, mining human muscle gene-expression databases, we have investigated the association of ADNP transcripts with muscle aging. We discovered increased ADNP and its paralogue ADNP2 expression in the vastus lateralis muscle of aged compared to young subjects, as well as altered expression of the ADNP and the ADNP2 genes in bicep brachii muscle of elderly people, in a sex-dependent manner. Prolonged exercise resulted in decreased ADNP expression, and increased ADNP2 expression in an age-dependent manner in the vastus lateralis muscle. ADNP expression level was further correlated with 49 genes showing age-dependent changes in muscle transcript expression. A high degree of correlation with ADNP was discovered for 24 genes with the leading gene/protein being NMNAT1 (nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyl transferase 1). Looking at correlations differentiating the young and the old muscles and comparing protein interactions revealed an association of ADNP with the cell division cycle 5-like protein (CDC5L), and an aging-muscle–related interactive pathway in the vastus lateralis. In the bicep brachii, very high correlation was detected with genes associated with immune functions as well as mitochondrial structure and function among others. Taken together, the results suggest a direct association of ADNP with muscle strength and implicate ADNP fortification in the protection against age-associated muscle wasting.
- Endurance exercise
- Transcription profile