Adjuvants may induce autoimmune diseases in susceptible individuals, a phenomenon recently defined as autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). Patients with both antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and the genetic coagulopathy factor V Leiden (FVL) are frequently found. We therefore evaluated whether adjuvant can induce aPL in heterozygous FVL mice. aPL were measured in naïve mice and at 1 and 5 months after immunization with either complete or incomplete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, IFA) in FVL and control C57/B6 background mice. We defined antibody levels 3 SD above the mean of C57/B6 mice immunized with adjuvant as positive (specificity of 99%). For β2GPI-dependent aPL, 28.6% (6/21) of FVL mice 5 months after immunization with adjuvant (both IFA and CFA) were positive compared with 4.8% (1/22) of FVL mice 1 month after adjuvant and 0% of naïve FVL and C57/B6 mice (0/16, p < 0.001). aPL levels correlated with behavioral hyperactivity in the staircase test. FVL mice immunized with adjuvant did not develop β2GPI-independent aPL. We hypothesize that the FVL aPL association is not a coincidence, but that chronic coagulation defects combined with external inflammatory stimuli analogous to adjuvant may induce aPL and also antiphospholipid syndrome, thus supporting the notion of ASIA.
- antiphospholipid syndrome
- experimental model