Additive deleterious effect of smoking on gastroduodenal pathology and clinical course in Helicobacter pylori-positive dyspeptic patients

Menachem Moshkowitz*, Shlomo Brill, Fred M. Konikoff, Mordechai Averbuch, Nadir Arber, Zamir Halpern

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Cigarette smoking has long been regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. Objective: To investigate whether cigarette smoking has an additive effect on the clinical presentation and course of disease in Helicobacter pylori-positive dyspeptic patients. Patients and methods: The study group comprised 596 consecutive H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients (334 males and 262 females, mean age 50.6, range 12-81 years). Following upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, patients were subdivided by diagnosis as follows: Non-ulcer patient group (n=312: gastritis 193, duodenitis 119), gastric ulcer (n=19), and duodenal ulcer (n=265). H. pylori infection was confirmed by histology and/or rapid urease test. In addition, 244 patients had a positive 14C-urea breath test prior to antimicrobial treatment. The patients' medical history and smoking habits were obtained using a detailed questionnaire completed by the patients and their referring physicians. Results: There were 337 non-smoking patients, 148 current smokers and 111 past smokers. Gastric and duodenal ulcers were significantly less prevalent in non-smokers than in current or past smokers (gastric 1.8%, 4.1%, 6.3%; duodenal 39.8%, 50%, 51.4%, respectively) (P<0.05). The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly lower in non-smokers than in current or past smokers (7.1%, 8.1% and 20.7%, respectively) (P<0.05). Bacterial density, as assessed by the UBT value in 244 patients, was higher in non-smokers (mean 352.3±273 units) than in past smokers (mean 320.8±199) or current-smokers (mean 229.9±162) (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, current smoking, and immigration from developing countries were all significant independent risks for developing duodenal ulcer, while only past smoking was associated with a higher rate of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the past. Conclusions: In H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients, current smoking as well as male gender and immigration from developing countries are associated with an increased risk for duodenal ulcer. This effect does not seem to be related to the bacterial density or increased urease activity of H. pylori organisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)892-895
Number of pages4
JournalIsrael Medical Association Journal
Volume2
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cigarette smoking
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Peptic ulcer

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