Acute hepatitis in Israeli travelers

Tamar Lachish, Moshik Tandlich, Eli Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background Acute hepatitis is a well-described cause of morbidity and sporadic mortality in travelers. Data regarding the epidemiology of hepatitis in travelers are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of acute viral hepatitis among travelers returning from tropical countries, with particular attention to enterically transmitted hepatitis. Methods This study is a prospective observational study of ill-returned travelers who presented at two travel medicine clinics in Israel between the years 1997 and 2012. Data of patients with acute hepatitis were summarized. Only travelers were included, immigrants and foreign workers were excluded. Results Among 4,970 Israeli travelers who were seen during this period, 49 (1%) were diagnosed with acute hepatitis. Among them, hepatitis E virus (HEV) was the etiology in 19 (39%) cases and hepatitis A virus (HAV) was the etiology in 13 (27%) cases, demonstrating that 65% of all cases were due to enterically transmitted hepatitis. Acquiring acute hepatitis B (two cases) or acute hepatitis C (one case) was uncommon (6.1%). In 27% of the cases, no diagnosis was determined. Fifty-five percent of cases were imported from the Indian subcontinent, with a predominance of HEV infection (84%). A significant male predominance was seen in all groups regardless of etiology. Pre-travel consultation was documented in only 7% of those with vaccine preventable hepatitis (hepatitis A & B) compared to 89% in those with hepatitis E. Conclusions Enterically transmitted hepatitis is the main causes of viral hepatitis among travelers. HEV is an emerging disease and has become the most common hepatitis among Israeli travelers. Although an efficacious vaccine has been developed, no licensed HEV vaccine is yet available. Although hepatitis A vaccine is highly efficacious, safe, and easily available, there is a stable number of HAV cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-236
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Travel Medicine
Volume20
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2013

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