Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually an acute, multi-focal, and monophasic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. The disorder is mainly a condition of the pediatric age group, but neurologists are also involved in the management of adult patients. The lack of defined diagnostic criteria for ADEM underlies the limited understanding of its epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, course, prognosis, therapy, as well as the association with, and distinction from, multiple sclerosis. The present review summarizes current knowledge and outlines unanswered questions the answers to which should be eventually provided through a synergistic combination of clinical and basic research.
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
- Multiple sclerosis
- Post infection