Actual frequency of imaging during follow-up of testicular cancer in Israel—a comparison with the guidelines

Anna Therese Lehnich, Carsten Rusner, Gabriel Chodick, Rachel Katz, Tal Sella, Andreas Stang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Computed tomography (CT) examinations are frequent in follow-up care of testicular cancer (TC) but may increase the risk for other cancers. We wanted to assess the actual number of CT and X-ray examinations within the first 5 years after a diagnosis of TC in Israel during 2003–2007. Methods: The database of Maccabi Healthcare Services, Israel, was searched for TC patients diagnosed in 2003 to 2007 by direct linkage with the Israel National Cancer Registry. Data on diagnostic imaging examinations (CT of chest, abdomen, or pelvis, unspecified sites; X-ray of chest) were extracted during a 5-year follow-up for 226 incident patients. The actual number of CT and X-ray examinations was compared to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline. We tabulated the median with 10th and 90th percentiles (P10, P90) for the number of CTs and X-rays considering histology, stage, and adjuvant strategy. Results: The number of abdomen or pelvis CTs for TC patients receiving chemo- or radiotherapy was in accordance with the NCCN guideline. The median of abdomen or pelvis CTs for surveillance patients was 8.5 (P10, P90: 3; 13) for nonseminoma and 5.0 (P10, P90: 5; 13) for seminoma patients compared to 14 to 17 CTs recommended. The number of chest X-rays was lower than recommended in the guideline for all adjuvant strategies. Conclusions: The NCCN guidelines regarding CTs were met for TC patients treated with chemo- or radiotherapy but fell below recommendations for surveillance. Guidelines from 2011 and 2012 were updated in favor of fewer CTs during surveillance. Key Points: • The number of CTs followed the NCCN guidelines in patients treated with chemo- or radiotherapy. • Surveillance patients received fewer CTs and X-rays than recommended in the NCCN guidelines from 2005. • The number of applied CT examinations corresponded to a radiation dose that did not substantially raise the lifetime risk for cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3918-3926
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2019


  • Follow-up studies
  • Guideline adherence
  • Testicular neoplasms
  • Tomography
  • X-ray computed


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