Complete deficiency in activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) results in neural tube closure defects and death at days 8.5-9.5 of gestation in the mouse (E8.5-9.5). To elucidate ADNP associated pathways, Affymetrix 22,690-oligonucleotide-based microarrays were used on ADNP knockout and control mouse embryos (E9) separated completely from extra embryonic tissue. Marked differences in expression profiles between ADNP-deficient embryos and ADNP-expressing embryos were discovered. Specifically, a group of dramatically up-regulated gene transcripts in the ADNP-deficient embryos were clustered into a family encoding for proteins enriched in the visceral endoderm such as apolipoproteins, cathepsins and methallotionins. In contrast, a down regulated gene cluster associated with ADNP-deficiency in the developing embryo consisted of organogenesis markers including neurogenesis (Ngfr, neurogenin1, neurod1) and heart development (Myl2). The pluripotent P19 cells were used for ADNP-chromatin-immunoprecipitation, showing direct interactions with multiple relevant gene promoters including members of the up-regulated as well as the down-regulated gene clusters. A comparison between non-differentiated and neuro-differentiated P19 cells revealed increased chromatin interaction of ADNP with chromatin from differentiated cells. These results place ADNP at a crucial point of gene regulation, repressing potential endoderm genes and enhancing genes associated with organogenesis/neurogenesis.
- Chromatin immunoprecipitation
- Gene array
- Knockout embryos
- Visceral endoderm