The ligand-induced internalization and recycling of chemokine receptors play a significant role in their regulation. In this study, we analyzed the involvement of actin filaments and of microtubules in the control of ligand-induced internalization and recycling of CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)1 and CXCR2, two closely related G protein-coupled receptors that mediate ELR-expressing CXC chemokine-induced cellular responses. Nocodazole, a microtubule-disrupting agent, did not affect the IL-8-induced reduction in cell surface expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2, nor did it affect the recycling of these receptors following ligand removal and cell recovery at 37°C. In contrast, cytochalasin D, an actin filament depolymerizing agent, promoted the IL-8-induced reduction in cell surface expression of both CXCR1 and CXCR2. Cytochalasin D significantly inhibited the recycling of both CXCR1 and I CXCR2 following IL-8-induced internalization, the inhibition being more pronounced for CXCR2 than for CXCR1. Potent inhibition of recycling was observed also when internalization of CXCR2 was induced by another ELR-expressing CXC chemokine, granulocyte chemotactic protein-2. By the use of carboxyl terminus-truncated CXCR1 and CXCR2 it was observed that the carboxyl terminus domains of CXCR1 and CXCR2 were partially involved in the regulation of the actin-mediated process of receptor recycling. The cytochalasin D-mediated inhibition of CXCR2 recycling had a functional relevance because it impaired the ability of CXCR2-expressing cells to mediate cellular responses. These results suggest that actin filaments, but not microtubules, are involved in the regulation of the intracellular trafficking of CXCR1 and CXCR2, and that actin filaments may be required to enable cellular resensitization following a desensitized refractory period.