Acquisition of Basic Microsurgical Skills Using Low-Cost, Readily Available Models: The Orange Model

Omer Doron, Iddo Paldor, Samuel Moscovisci, Sergey Spektor, David J. Chalif, David J. Langer, Erez Nossek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Attainment of basic microsurgical skills in neurosurgery presents a departmental challenge worldwide. Models for teaching are either not readily available or expensive and are incompatible with a resident's busy schedule, requiring lengthy and proper setup. We present a model and a set of measurable tasks, based on a fruit (orange) that is cheap, easy to set up instantly when desired, and useful for training of basic microsurgical skills. Methods: Basic microsurgical skills were identified, necessitating hand-eye coordination working with the microscope. The goal was to dissect an orange segment while preserving adjacent segments. Assessment was based on the number of side tears and task completion duration. The task was repeated in a sequential manner (n = 10), for validation purposes, for 3 operators at different seniority levels. Results: An improvement in the number of side tears (mean of 12.66 ± 9.01 in the first trial vs. 4 ± 4.35 in the 10th trial, P < 0.01), as well as duration of time required for task completion (mean initial duration of 28:16 ± 19:00 minutes to a duration of 16:33 ± 10:50 minutes in the last attempt, P < 0.01), was observed. Daily practice scores and time gradually improved, and the seniority level of operators was correlated with scoring between individuals. Conclusions: The orange model is an easily accessible, cheap model that enables the acquisition of basic microneurosurgical skills. In this work, we validated and defined reproducible tasks that can be scored and tracked, correlated with operator's proficiency and experience. This model can be incorporated into a resident's workflow environment and provides a platform for attainment of elementary microsurgical skills for neurosurgical residents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-196
Number of pages8
JournalWorld Neurosurgery
StatePublished - Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Arachnoid dissection
  • Microsurgical skills
  • Neurosurgery residency
  • Training models


Dive into the research topics of 'Acquisition of Basic Microsurgical Skills Using Low-Cost, Readily Available Models: The Orange Model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this