The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of an organism serves as a skeleton for its signaling circuitry, which mediates cellular response to environmental and genetic cues. Understanding this circuitry could improve the prediction of gene function and cellular behavior in response to diverse signals. To realize this potential, one has to comprehensively map PPIs and their directions of signal flow. While the quality and the volume of identified human PPIs improved dramatically over the last decade, the directions of these interactions are still mostly unknown, thus precluding subsequent prediction and modeling efforts. Here we present a systematic approach to orient the human PPI network using drug response and cancer genomic data. We provide a diffusion-based method for the orientation task that significantly outperforms existing methods. The oriented network leads to improved prioritization of cancer driver genes and drug targets compared to the state-of-the-art unoriented network.