A stepwise testing protocol for modern implantable cardioverter- defibrillator systems to prevent pacemaker-implantable cardioverter- defibrillator interactions

Michael Glikson, Jane M. Trusty, Suellen K. Grice, David L. Hayes, Stephen C. Hammill, Marshall S. Stanton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Current use of newer implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) has changed the spectrum of pacemaker-ICD interactions and provided new tools for testing and understanding those interactions. Testing for pacemaker-ICD interactions was performed in 31 procedures involving 22 patients. The protocol included: (1) evaluation of pacemaker stimulus artifact amplitude and its ratio to that of the evoked ventricular electrogram, (2) testing for inhibition of ventricular fibrillation (VF) detection by the ICD during asynchronous pacing at maximum output, (3) evaluation by pacemaker event marker recordings of pacemaker sensing behavior while programmed to nonasynchronous mode during ventricular tachycardia (VT) or VF, and (4) evaluation of postshock interactions. Inhibition of detection of VT/VF was found in 6 of 22 patients (27.2%). Large stimulus artifact amplitude (>2 mV) or stimulus artifact:evoked QRS ratio > 1/3 had a positive predictive accuracy of 18% and 14.4%, respectively, and a negative predictive accuracy of 100% and 92.3%, respectively, for clinically significant interaction. Asynchronous pacing occurred in 16 of 31 procedures (51.6%), and was due to underdetection by the pacemaker in 4 of 16 (25%) and noise reversion in 12 of 16 (75%). Postshack phenomena occurred in 6 cases, 3 of which were clinically significant. Overall, 11 of 22 patients (50%) had clinically significant interactions discovered by this protocol, which led to system revisions in 6 and to pacemaker output reprogramming in 5. Thus, pacemaker-ICD interactions are frequently detected using a thorough and systematic protocol. Most cases can be managed by system revision or pacemaker reprogramming.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)360-366
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Volume83
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 1999
Externally publishedYes

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