Introduction: The significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients remains controversial. We hypothesized that the presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria as a sole clinical manifestation of urinary tract infection (UTI) in asymptomatic MHD patient may contribute to the chronic inflammatory response. Our aim was to explore the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and elevated levels of inflammatory markers in MHD patients. Methods: A randomized open-label single center study of 114 MHD patients was conducted. Forty-six patients presented negative urine culture and 41 subjects were excluded due to different reasons. The remaining 27 patients (mean age of 71.5 ± 12.2 years, 63% men), fulfilling the criteria for having asymptomatic bacteriuria, were randomly assigned to either the treatment group (13 patients) or the observational group (14 subjects). The treatment group received 7 days of antibiotic treatment given according to bacteriogram sensitivity. After 3 months of follow-up all measurements of the study were repeated. The primary end point was change in inflammatory biomarkers from baseline by the end of the study. Findings: There were no statistically significant differences in white blood cell changes (P = 0.27), ferritin (P = 0.09), C-reactive protein (P = 0.90), and interleukin-6 (P = 0.14) levels between the groups from baseline to the end of study or at the end of the study. Analyzing cross-sectional data, asymptomatic bacteriuria was found to not be a predictor of higher levels of inflammatory parameters at baseline. Discussion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not a modifiable risk factor for chronic inflammation in the MHD population.