A Prospective, Cohort Study of SITOIGANAP to Treat Glioblastoma When Given in Combination With Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/Cyclophosphamide/Bevacizumab/Nivolumab or Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/Cyclophosphamide/Bevacizumab/Pembrolizumab in Patients Who Failed Prior Treatment With Surgical Resection, Radiation, and Temozolomide

Daniela A. Bota, Thomas H. Taylor, Naomi Lomeli, Xiao Tang Kong, Beverly D. Fu, Axel H. Schönthal, Samuel Singer, Deborah T. Blumenthal, Frank M. Senecal, Helena Linardou, Evangelos Rokas, Dimitris G. Antoniou, Virgil E.J.C. Schijns, Thomas C. Chen, Joseph Elliot, Apostolos Stathopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary, malignant brain tumor in adults and has a poor prognosis. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) of newly diagnosed GBM is approximately 6 months. The recurrence rate approaches 100%, and the case-fatality ratio approaches one. Half the patients die within 8 months of recurrence, and 5-year survival is less than 10%. Advances in treatment options are urgently needed. We report on the efficacy and safety of a therapeutic vaccine (SITOIGANAP: Epitopoietic Research Corporation) administered to 21 patients with recurrent GBM (rGBM) under a Right-to-Try/Expanded Access program. SITOIGANAP is composed of both autologous and allogeneic tumor cells and lysates. Methods: Twenty-one patients with rGBM received SITOIGANAP on 28-day cycles in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), cyclophosphamide, bevacizumab, and an anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody (either nivolumab or pembrolizumab). Results: The mPFS was 9.14 months, and the median overall survival (mOS) was 19.63 months from protocol entry. Currently, 14 patients (67%) are at least 6 months past their first SITOIGANAP cycle; 10 patients (48%) have received at least six cycles and have a mOS of 30.64 months and 1-year survival of 90%. The enrollment and end-of-study CD3+/CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts strongly correlate with OS. Conclusions: The addition of SITOIGANAP/GM-CSF/cyclophosphamide to bevacizumab and an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody resulted in a significant survival benefit compared to historic control values in rGBM with minimal toxicity compared to current therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number934638
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Volume12
DOIs
StatePublished - 28 Jun 2022

Keywords

  • ERC1671
  • GBM vaccine
  • immunotherapy
  • recurrent glioblastoma
  • SITOIGANAP

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