A proposal for managing bleeding in patients on therapeutic factor XI(a) inhibitors

Ophira Salomon, David Gailani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Several drugs that reduce functional levels of the plasma protease zymogen factor XI (FXI), or that inhibit its activated form (FXIa), are being evaluated as treatments to prevent thrombosis. Based on the observation that individuals with inherited FXI deficiency have a relatively mild bleeding disorder, it is anticipated that therapeutic FXI(a) inhibitors will have a smaller impact on hemostasis than anticoagulants targeting thrombin or factor Xa. However, even if FXI(a) inhibitors are determined to be safer than currently used anticoagulants, some patients on these drugs will experience abnormal bleeding or require emergent surgery. Strategies for dealing with such situations are required. Treatment with antifibrinolytic agents and low doses of recombinant factor VIIa effectively prevent abnormal bleeding in FXI-deficient patients with alloantibody inhibitors to FXI who undergo surgery. We propose that a similar strategy can be used for patients on therapeutic FXI(a) inhibitors who are bleeding or require invasive procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-38
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


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