It is well accepted that high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the plasma are associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. The cellular and molecular mechanisms linking the two however, have not been fully resolved. One of the processes involved in atherogensis that has been intensively studied in this regard is the oxidation of LDL. Oxidation may convert LDL into an atherogenic form, which incites an inflammatory and proliferative response characteristic of the atherosclerotic lesion. One of the potential mediators in this process is the lipid peroxidating enzyme 15-lipoxygenase, which has been shown to be induced in the atherosclerotic lesion and is capable of oxidizing LDL. In this article, we review the motivation for looking at mechanisms of LDL oxidation and the proposed involvement of 15-lipoxygenase in the pathogenesis of the disease.