A point mutation in the pre-ZRS disrupts sonic hedgehog expression in the limb bud and results in triphalangeal thumb–polysyndactyly syndrome

Jacob W.P. Potuijt, Martijn Baas, Rivka Sukenik-Halevy, Hannie Douben, Picard Nguyen, Deon J. Venter, Renée Gallagher, Sigrid M. Swagemakers, Steven E.R. Hovius, Christianne A. van Nieuwenhoven, Robert Jan H. Galjaard, Peter J. van der Spek, Nadav Ahituv, Annelies de Klein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is an enhancer that regulates sonic hedgehog during embryonic limb development. Recently, mutations in a noncoding evolutionary conserved sequence 500 bp upstream of the ZRS, termed the pre-ZRS (pZRS), have been associated with polydactyly in dogs and humans. Here, we report the first case of triphalangeal thumb–polysyndactyly syndrome (TPT-PS) to be associated with mutations in this region and show via mouse enhancer assays how this mutation leads to ectopic expression throughout the developing limb bud. Methods: We used linkage analysis, whole-exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, single-nucleotide polymorphism array, and a mouse transgenic enhancer assay. Results: Ten members of a TPT-PS family were included in this study. The mutation was linked to chromosome 7q36 (LOD score 3.0). No aberrations in the ZRS could be identified. A point mutation in the pZRS (chr7:156585476G>C; GRCh37/hg19) was detected in all affected family members. Functional characterization using a mouse transgenic enhancer essay showed extended ectopic expression dispersed throughout the entire limb bud (E11.5). Conclusion: Our work describes the first mutation in the pZRS to be associated with TPT-PS and provides functional evidence that this mutation leads to ectopic expression of this enhancer within the developing limb.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1405-1413
Number of pages9
JournalGenetics in Medicine
Volume20
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2018

Keywords

  • congenital limb deformities
  • genetic enhancer elements
  • hedgehog protein
  • polydactyly
  • syndactyly

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