A Pilot Study of Blood Pressure Monitoring After Cardiac Surgery Using a Wearable, Non-invasive Sensor

Erez Kachel, Keren Constantini, Dean Nachman, Shemy Carasso, Romi Littman, Arik Eisenkraft, Yftach Gepner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Background: Continuous blood pressure (BP) measurement in intensive care units is based on arterial line (AL) transducers, sometimes associated with clinical complications. Our objective was to evaluate continuous BP measurements obtained from a non-invasive, wireless photoplethysmography (PPG)-based device using two distinct configurations (wristwatch and chest-patch monitors) compared to an AL. Methods: In this prospective evaluation study, comparison of the PPG-based devices to the AL was conducted in 10 patients immediately following cardiac surgery. Pulse rate (PR), systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded using both the AL and the PPG-based devices simultaneously for an average of 432 ± 290 min starting immediately after cardiac surgery. Bland-Altman plots and Pearson's correlations were used to assess the accuracy and degree of agreement between techniques. Results: A total of ~4,000 data points were included in the final analysis. AL measurements for PR, SBP, DBP and MAP were significantly (p < 0.001) and strongly correlated with both the wristwatch (r = 0.99, r = 0.94, r = 0.93 and r = 0.96, respectively) and the chest-patch (r = 0.99, r = 0.95, r = 0.93 and r = 0.95, respectively) monitors. Both configurations showed a marginal bias of <1 mmHg for BP measurements and <1 beat/min for PR [95% limits of agreement −3,3 beat/min; BP measurements: (−6)–(−10), 6–10 mmHg] compared to AL measurements. Conclusion: The PPG-based devices offer a high level of accuracy for cardiac-related parameters compared to an AL in post-cardiac surgery patients. Such devices could provide advanced monitoring capabilities in a variety of clinical settings, including immediate post-operative and intensive care unit settings. Clinical Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03603860.

Original languageEnglish
Article number693926
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
StatePublished - 5 Aug 2021


FundersFunder number
Israeli Ministry of Science, Technology & Space3-16706
Tel Aviv University


    • blood pressure
    • cardiac surgery
    • mean arterial pressure
    • non-invasive sensor
    • wearable


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